Before the Creation
In the beginning, before the beginning of creation there was nothing else but Allah.
In the Qur’an Allah says,
“Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakil (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian, etc.) over all things.” – Quran 39:62
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said,
“First of all, there was nothing but Allah…” – Sahih Al Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54, Hadith 414.
So, everything besides Allah was created by Him, and is under His minion and His disposal, and was brought into being, having previously not existed.
Creation of the Throne of Allah
The first thing what Allah created is the Throne above water. The Throne, which is the ceiling of all created things, including everything that lies beneath the Earth and all that exists between it and the Throne. The Throne is gigantic in size and is above the top most heaven which is called “Firdaws”. The Throne is so massive that it takes angels and angel Jibril a day equivalent to 50 thousand years which we count to ascend to Allah. There is a footstool between the Throne and the top heaven called “Kursi” which is so massive that it extends over the heavens and the size of the Kursi in relation to the Throne is like an iron ring thrown into an open desert on Earth.
And He it is Who has created the heavens and the earth in six Days and His Throne was on the water, that He might try you, which of you is the best in deeds. – Quran 11:7
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said,
“First of all, there was nothing but Allah, and (then He created His Throne). His throne was over the water…” – Sahih Al Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54, Hadith 414.
Mu’adh bin Jabal said:
“I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) say: ‘Paradise has one hundred grades, each of which is as big as the distance between heaven and earth. The highest of them is Firdaws and the best of them is Firdaws. The Throne is above Firdaws and from it spring forth the rivers of Paradise. If you ask of Allah, ask Him for Firdaws.’” – Sunan Ibn Majah (English), Volume 5, Book 37, Hadith 4331, Grade: Sahih.
The angels and the Ruh [Jibrael (Gabriel)] ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years. – Quran 70:4
His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth. – Quran 2:255
Creation of the Pen & Tablet
So, Allah was on His Throne which was above water. Then the first thing what Allah created for the purpose of His creation was the Pen and said to it write. So, it wrote what will be forever.
Abdul-Wahid bin Sulaim said:
“I arrived in Makkah and met Ata bin Abi Rabah. I said: ‘O Abu Muhammad! Some people with us speak about Al-Qadar.’ Ata said: ‘I met Al-Walid bin Ubadah bin As-Samit and he said: “My father narrated to me, he said: ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: “Verily the first of what Allah created was the Pen. He said to it: “Write.” So, it wrote what will be forever.’” – Jami At Tirmidhi (English), Volume 5, Book 44, Hadith 3319, Grade: Sahih.
It might make people question about why did Allah create The Pen? Allah created The Pen to write down the decree of everything from the beginning to the end. This proves that Allah knows everything even before they happen. Many people say that if Allah already decreed everything what is going to happen then why are we to take the blame for our actions or wrongdoings. The thing is as Allah knows the future before it happens, He has just written down the things we ourselves are going to do in our life.
Ubadah b. al Samit said to his son:
Son! You will not get the taste of the reality of faith until you know that what has come to you could not miss you, and that what has missed you could not come to you. I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) say: The first thing Allah created was the pen. He said to it: Write. It asked: What should I write, my Lord? He said: Write what was decreed about everything till the Last Hour comes. Son! I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) say: He who dies on something other than this does not belong to me. – Sunan Abu Dawud (English), Book 41, Hadith 4683, Grade: Sahih.
Abdul-Wahid bin Sulaim narrated:
“I arrived in Makkah and met ‘Ata bin Abi Rabab. I said to him: ‘O Abu Muhammad! The people of Al-Basrah speak about Al-Qadar.’ He said: ‘O my son! Do you recite the Quran?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He said: ‘Then recite Az-Zukhruf to me.'” He said: ‘So I recited: Ha Mim. By the manifest Book, Verily, we have made it a Quran in Arabic that you may be able to understand. And verily, it is in the Mother of Book with Us, indeed exalted, full of wisdom. Then he said: ‘Do you know what Mother of Books is?’ I said: ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ He said: ‘It is a book that Allah wrote before He created the Heavens, and before He created the earth…’- Jami At Tirmidhi (English), Volume 4, Book 6, Hadith 2155, Grade: Sahih.
So, The Pen wrote down the decree of everything from the beginning to the end on a preserved tablet. It is known as “The Mother of The Book”. This preserved tablet is with Allah besides His Majestic Throne.
“By the clear Book, Indeed, we have made it an Arabic Qur’an that you might understand. And indeed, it is, in the Mother of the Book with Us, exalted full of wisdom.” – Quran 43:2-4
It is also narrated from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) that Allah decreed the measures of His creation 50 thousand years before He created the Heavens and the earth, while His Throne was over water.
Abdullah b. ‘Amr b. al-‘As reported:
I heard Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) as saying: Allah ordained the measures (of quality) of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, as His Throne was upon water. – Sahih Al Muslim, Book 33, Hadith 6416.
Creation of the Heavens & the Earth
Then Allah created the Heavens and the Earth. He created 7 Heavens on top of one another. But before splitting the Heavens into 7 layers Allah completed the Earth first with all of its necessities.
He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything. – Quran 2:29
[And] who created seven heavens in layers. You do not see in the creation of the Most Merciful any inconsistency. So, return [your] vision [to the sky]; do you see any breaks? – Quran 67:3
In the beginning, the Heavens and Earth were joined together in the form of smoke. Then Allah separated them into separate entity as Heavens and Earth. This process is known as in modern times “The Big Bang”.
Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe? – Quran 21:30
To Allah it is very easy to create something no matter how complex it is. In order to create something, Allah just says “Be” and it becomes.
Then He directed Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, “Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion.” They said, “We have come willingly.” – Quran 41:11
Creation of the Stars, Sun and Moon
Then Allah fashioned the nearest Heaven with Stars, Sun, Moon etc.
And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing. – Quran 41:12
And We have certainly beautified the nearest heaven with stars and have made [from] them what is thrown at the devils and have prepared for them the punishment of the Blaze. – Quran 67:4
Do you not consider how Allah has created seven heavens in layers? And made the moon therein a [reflected] light and made the sun a burning lamp? – Quran 71:15-16
Spreading the Earth with its Necessities
Then Allah spread the Earth with the things necessary for the sustenance of the Human Beings, plants, animals and the creatures. And He has mentioned about them in the Qur’an so that people of understanding can reason.
The Mountains as means of Shelter and Sustenance:
And He placed on the earth firmly set mountains over its surface, and He blessed it and determined therein its [creatures’] sustenance in four days without distinction – for [the information] of those who ask. – Quran 41:10
And the earth – We have spread it and cast therein firmly set mountains and caused to grow therein [something] of every well-balanced thing. And We have made for you therein means of living and [for] those for whom you are not providers. – Quran 15:19-20
And We placed therein lofty, firmly set mountains and have given you to drink sweet water. – Quran 77:27
And the mountains He set firmly. As provision for you and your grazing livestock. – Quran 79:32
Do you not see that Allah sends down rain from the sky, and We produce thereby fruits of varying colors? And in the mountains, are tracts, white and red of varying shades and [some] extremely black. – Quran 35:27
The Sky, Night & Day, Sun & Moon, Mountains & Roads:
And We placed within the earth firmly set mountains, lest it should shift with them, and We made therein [mountain] passes [as] roads that they might be guided. And We made the sky a protected ceiling, but they, from its signs, are turning away. And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming. – Quran 21:31-33
And Allah has made for you the earth an expanse. That you may follow therein roads of passage. – Quran 71:19-20
And We have sent the fertilizing winds and sent down water from the sky and given you drink from it. And you are not its retainers. – Quran 15:22
Bringing dead lands alive with Rain, bringing fruits and vegetation:
And it is He who sends the winds as good tidings before His mercy until, when they have carried heavy rain-clouds, we drive them to a dead land and We send down rain therein and bring forth thereby [some] of all the fruits. Thus, will We bring forth the dead; perhaps you may be reminded.
And the good land – its vegetation emerges by permission of its Lord; but that which is bad – nothing emerges except sparsely, with difficulty. Thus, do We diversify the signs for a people who are grateful.
– Quran 7:57-58
Creation of the Angels
Then Allah created the Angels from light.
A’isha reported that Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) said:
The Angels were born out of light and the Jinns were born out of the spark of fire and Adam was born as he has been defined (in the Qur’an) for you (i. e. he is fashioned out of clay). – Sahih Al Muslim, Book 42, Hadith 7134.
Angels do not have freewill. Allah created them to do certain tasks; which they execute.
[The angels say], “There is not among us any except that he has a known position. And indeed, we are those who line up [for prayer]. And indeed, we are those who exalt Allah.” – Quran 37:164-166
Creation of the Jinn
Then Allah created the Jinn from smokeless flame of fire.
“And indeed, We created man from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud. And the jinn, We created aforetime from the smokeless flame of fire.” – Quran 15:26-27
“And He created the jinn from a smokeless flame of fire.” – Quran 55:15
The Jinn and Mankind both live on this Earth, but into two different realms. The world of the Jinn is unseen to the Humans.
Creation of Mankind
Then Allah created Adam, the father of all of Mankind from clay.
“And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, “I will create a human being out of clay from an altered black mud.” – Quran 15:28
“He created man from clay like [that of] pottery.” – Quran 55:14
Then from Adam, Allah created Hawwa (Eve), and from both of them created all of Mankind.
“O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women.” – Quran 4:1